1. The One was continuously existing from [the] beginning. The One we have heard, and still hear, the One we have seen. and now see with our eyes (by our eyes; in our eyes) – the One we gazed upon as a public spectacle (as an exhibit in a theater) and our hands handled (felt about for and touched) groping around the Word of Life. [note: I have treated Aho@ as the definite article in the first four phrases here and in vs. 3; many treat it as a neuter relative and render it: That which]

2. And the Life was (is) manifested (made visible; brought into the light) and we have seen and now see, and are repeatedly testifying (bearing witness) and are constantly reporting to you the message of the Life pertaining to the ages (age-lasting life; eonian life) which Certain [Life] was continuously existing [oriented; proceeding] toward the Father, and was (is) manifested (made visible) to us (in us; by us).

3. The One we have seen, and now see, and we have heard, and still hear, we are also constantly reporting to you, to the end that you, too, may be continuously having fellowship (holding partnership and common participation) with us. And yet our common participation (fellowship; partnership) [is] with the Father, and with His Son, Jesus Christ.

4. And we ourselves are proceeding in writing these things, to the end that our joy [other MSS your joy] may continually exist having been filled up and continuing full.

5. And this is the message (or: and it is this message) which we have heard – and still hear – from Him and we are continually bringing back tidings (announcing again) to you that God continuously exists being (is) Light, and within Him darkness does not exist – not even one.

6. If we should say that we are continuously having fellowship (common participation; partnership) with Him and may be habitually walking round about within the Darkness, we are constantly lying (speaking falsely) and are not in the habit of doing (are not practicing) the truth.

7. Yet if we are continuously walking about within the Light, as He exists (is) within the Light we constantly have fellowship (hold common participation and partnership) with one another, and the blood of Jesus, His Son. keeps continually (is progressively) cleansing us (rendering us pure) from every (all) sin.

8. If we should say that we have no failure (or that we do not constantly hold sin), we are continuously leading ourselves astray (deceiving ourselves), and the Truth is not (does not exist) within us.

9. If we may constantly confess (admit; avow, say the same thing as; speak in accordance with) our sin, He is constantly faithful and just (in accord with the Way pointed out), to the end that He should send away for us (dismiss or pardon for us) the sins [some MSS +: our] and should cleanse [other MSS: He will cleanse] us from all injustice (all that is contrary to the Way pointed out; every unrighteousness).

10 If we should say that we have not failed to hit the target (sinned), and exist thus, we habitually make Him a liar (one who utters falsehood), and His Word does not exist (is not) within us.


1. My little children, I am writing these things to you (for you) to the end that you may not fail to hit the target (sin). And if anyone should fail (commit sin), we constantly have (hold) One called alongside to help us toward the Father, Jesus Christ, the One in accord with the way pointed out (the Just One; the Righteous One).

2. And He Himself exists continually being a propitiatory shelter around our sins (the act by which our sins are made ineffective, effecting appeasement), yet not only around those pertaining to us, but rather, even around the whole ordered system (world; cosmos; universe)!

3. And within this we repeatedly know by experience that we have come to know Him (experience Him), if we may be continuously watchful and habitually keep (guard; observe) His commands (directives; orders).

4. The one who keeps on saying, AI have come to know Him by experience, and is not habitually keeping (observing) His commands, is a liar (exists being one who speaks falsehood) and God’s Truth (the Truth of God) is not (does not exist) within this one.

5. Yet whoever may be habitually keeping (attentively guarding to observe) His Word, truly (actually) within this one God’s Love has been perfected (brought to its goal; has been matured and finished). In this we constantly know expenentoalty that we continuously exist within Him.

6. The one habitually speaking [thus, as though] to be constantly abiding (remaining; dwelling) within Him, is continuously obligated (indebted) to himself also keep on walking about (conducting his life) according as That One (He) walked (walks) about.

7. Beloved ones. I am not writing a command new in kind or quality to you (for you), but rather an old command which you folks have continually had (were habitually holding) from [the] beginning. The old command is the Word, which you folks heard (near)!

8. Again (once more) I am writing to you a command new in kind and quality, which is (exists being) true (actual) within Him. and within you [other MSS: us], that the Darkness is progressively being caused to pass by, and the True Light is already (before now) progressively shining (appearing).  9. The one who keeps on speaking (thus, as though] to be within the Light, and is constantly hating (regarding with ill-will) his brother, is a liar and continues being within the Darkness until the present moment.

10. The one habitually loving his brother constantly abides (remains; dwells) within the Light, and there exists no snare (trap-spring; stick upon which bait is put; cause for stumbling) within him.     11. But the one habitually hating his brother constantly exists within the Darkness, and within the Darkness continuously walks about, and is not aware (knows not) where he is progressively departing (habitually going away), because the Darkness blinds (Minded) his eyes.

12. I am writing to you, little children that the failures (sins) have been sent away (put away; forgiven) for you through His Name!

13. I am writing to you, fathers, that you have by experience known the One [Who is] from [the] beginning [or the Original One], I am writing to you, young men (youths), that you have overcome (conquered) the one bringing a gush of misery (or the useless, unprofitable situation; the wicked man; the evil one; the bad situation or sorry plight; the worthless man; the pernicious fellow, the one causing anguish and painful labor, the condition full of harassed toil and annoying perils; the base fellow).

14. I write to, infants (babes), that you have by experience known the Father, I write to you, fathers, that you have by experience known the One [Who is] from [the] beginning. I write to you, young men (youths), that you are (exist) constantly strong, and God’s Word continuously dwells (abides; remains) within you and you have overcome (conquered) the one bringing a gush of misery (see 13, above).

15. You folks should not be habitually loving [or, as pres. imper.: Stop constantly loving; or “as pres. ind.: You do not habitually love…] the world (ordered system), neither (not even) the things within the world (ordered system). If anyone is in the habit of (keeps on) loving the world (ordered system), the Father’s [other MSS: God’s] Love does not exist within him,

16. Because everything within the world (ordered system) – the flesh’s over-desire (full passion; lust; earnest desire), and the eyes= over desire, and the arrogant (haughty); presumptuous) ostentation of living (the biological life we live), is not out of the Father, but rather is continuously out of the world (the ordered system),

17. and the worid (ordered system) is progressively (constantly; or, repeatedly) being caused to pass along (pass by; pass away), also it’s over-desire (full passion; earnest desire; lust), yet the one constantly doing (performing) God’s will remains (abides, dwells) into the Age.

18. Infant ones under instruction, it is continuously a last hour [an eschaton of the Day], and according as you hear (heard) that an antichrist (or that which is instead of, or in, the place of Christ) repeatedly comes [other MSS: the antichrist continuously comes], even now many antichrists (many things or people taking the place of Christ have been born (have come into existence; have come to be) and are here, from which fact (whence) we constantly know by experience that it is continuously a last hour.

19. They came (come) out from us, but they were not existing out of us (or they were not [a part] of us), for if they were out of us, they would have remained (dwelt; abided) with us; but [this was] to the end that they may be manifested (caused to appear) that they are not all out of us.

20. And you folks constantly have an anointing from the Set-Apart One (the Holy One), and you all have seen and are aware (know) (other MSS:… and you know all things].

21. I do not write to you because you do not know the Truth, but rather because you do know it and because every lie (falsehood) is not forth from the Truth.

22. Which one is (exists continuously being) the liar, if not the one habitually denying (disowning), [saying] that Jesus is not the Christ (the Anointed One; the Messiah)? This one is (exists being) the antichrist: the one habitually denying the Father and the Son.

23. Everyone continuously denying the Son does not even have (not even is he having; neither holds) the Father. The one habitually speaking like the Son (or: the one continuously confessing and avowing the Son; the one habitually speaking in accord with or saying the same thing as the Son) constantly has (holds) the Father.

24. Let what you folks heard from [the] beginning be continuously remaining (abiding; dwelling) within you. When (if. if at any time) that which you heard from [the] beginning may remain (abide) within you, you also will be remaining (abiding; dwelling) within the Son, even within the Father! (or… you will dwell both in the Son and in the Father]

25. And this is (continues being) the Promise which He Himself promised (promises) to us [other MSS: to you]: the Life of the Ages (or eonian life; age-lasting life; Life having the character and qualities of The Ages; life pertaining to the ages; Life through the Ages).

26. I write these things (or but I wrote these things) to you about the ones constantly leading you astray (deceiving you),

27. and the Anointing which you folks received (receive) from Him constantly remains (abides; dwells) within you folks, and you continually have no use (or you are not constantly having a need) that anyone should continually be teaching you, but rather, just as His Anointing is continuously teaching you about everything (concerning all things) and is continuously True, and is not a lie, even according as it (or He) teaches (taught) you: you are continuously abiding (remaining; dwelling) within Him [or. reading as imper.: be constantly remaining (abiding; dwelling) within Him].

28. And now (at the present time; in this moment), little children (born-ones; bairns), you are continuously [or, reading as imper.: be continuously] dwelling (abiding; remaining) within Him, to the end that if (whenever) He (or it) may be manifested (made visible) we may have boldness (freedom in speaking) and may not receive shame (disgrace; dishonor, humiliation) from Him, within His presence [or… may not be shamed away from Him within His presence]

29. If you folks may have come to see (perceive), and now know, that He is continuously One who constantly lives in accord to the Way pointed out (just; righteous), you continue to know by experience that everyone habitually doing (practicing; constructing; accomplishing; making) fair and equitable dealing (that which is in accord with the Way pointed out; justice; righteousness) has been born and now exists being a born﷓one, from out of Him (with Him as the Source).


1. See (behold; perceive), you folks, what kind of (what sort; what unusual, foreign or exotic) Love the Father has given to us [others: you], which we now have as a gift, to the end that we may (should) be called (named) God’s children (born-ones; bairns)! And we are! Because of this (on account of this; therefore) the system (the world; the ordered arrangement) is not habitually having experiential knowledge of us (does not know us [others: you]), because it did not know (it does not have an exponential knowledge of) Him.

2. Beloved ones, now (at the present time) we continuously exist being God’s children (born-ones; bairns from the standpoint of origin), and it has not yet been made visible (or it is not yet manifested) what we shall be. We have perceived, and thus know (are aware) that if it (or He) should be [or whenever it {or He} may] be made visible (manifested), ones like to Him (like-ones to Him; ones like Him; ones resembling Him) we shall be, because we shall see Him just as (according as; in the manner that) He constantly exists (He is).

3. And everyone who continuously has (habitually holds) this expectation (hope) upon Him is constantly (repeatedly) purifying himself, just as (according as; in the way that) That One is (exists being) pure.

4. Everyone constantly practicing (committing) failure (sin; the missing of the target) is also constantly practicing lawlessness (or habitually commits [does] violation of the law), and the sin (the failure to hit the target) exists being (is) the lawlessness (the violation of the law).

5. And you have perceived, and thus know (are aware) that That One was manifested (made visible) to the end that He would lift up and carry away (or sustain, bear and raise up) the sins (the failures to hit the target) [some MSS: our sins], and sin (failure to hit the target) does not exist within Him (or and in Him is no sin [failure]).

6. Everyone continuously remaining (dwelling; abiding) within Him is not habitually missing the target (practicing sin; failing in his purpose); everyone continually failing to hit the target (sinning) has not and does not see Him, nor come to know Him by experience.

7. Little children (born-ones), let no one be constantly leading you astray (deceiving you); the one continually doing (practicing) that in accord with the Way pointed out (the righteousness; the justice) is (exists being) just (in accord with the Way pointed out; righteous), according as (just as) That One is just (in accord with the Way pointed out; righteous).

8. Yet the one habitually practicing (doing) the sin (the failure to hit the target or accomplish his purpose) is existing out of the devil (the adversary who thrusts-through), because the devil habitually (continuously) is sinning (missing the target) from [the] beginning (the origin). Into this was (is) God’s Son manifested (made visible) to the end that He may unbind (loose; untie; destroy) the works (acts) of the devil (the adversary who thrusts-through).

9. Everyone who has been born out of God is not habitually practicing (doing) failure to hit the target (sin), because His seed is continuously remaining (dwelling; abiding) within him [or within Him], and he is not able (he has no power) to constantly fail to hit the target (sin), because he has been born out of God.

10. Within this thing (situation?) is constantly visible (apparent; manifest) God’s children and the devil’s children: everyone not practicing righteousness (not habitually doing justice; not constructing his life in accord with the Way pointed out) is not existing out of God – also the one not continuously loving his brother,

11. because this is the message [other MSS: the promise] which you heard (hear) from [the] beginning, to the end that we may habitually (continuously) love one another

12. not according as Cain. He was existing, and continued being, out of the one (or; situation) causing misery and hard labor (the unprofitable one; the worthless one; the wicked one; the toilsome situation; the sorry plight) and slaughtered (killed by cutting his jugular vein) his brother. And on what score (for what pleasure) did he slaughter him? Because his works (acts) were causing misery and hard labor (were wicked or evil; were toilsome; were unprofitable and worthless), but those of his brother [were] ones in accord with the Way pointed out (just ones; righteous ones).

13. Stop marveling (wondering; being astonished), brothers, if the ordered system (world) is constantly hating you (habitually regarding you with ill-will).

14. We have seen, and thus know, that we have walked together (proceeded to change passing from) out of the Death into the Life, because we are habitually loving the brothers [some MSS: our brothers]. The one not habitually loving [some MSS +: his brothers] continues remaining (dwelling; abiding) within the Death.

15. Everyone constantly hating (regarding with ill-will) his brother constantly exists being a man-slayer (a murderer), and has not seen so that he is aware that every man-slayer does not have (is not continuously holding) life pertaining to the Ages (eonian life) continuously remaining within him.16. Within this we have come to know by experience the Love: that That One placed (places; sets; deposited) His soul over us; we also are constantly indebted (obligated) to place [our] souls over the brothers.

17. But whoever may continuously have the world’s means of living (or may habitually hold the sustenance of the life pertaining to the ordered system), and may habitually gaze upon his brother [who is] continuously having a need, and may close shut (lock) his intestines (= his compassions) away from him. how is God’s love dwelling (abiding; remaining) within him [or, reading as a future: how will God’s love dwell in him]?

18. Little children (little born-ones), we should not be habitually loving in word (by a word), nor even in (by) the tongue, but rather within act (deed; work) and truth.

19. And within this we shall come to know by our own experience that we continuously exist (are) out of the Truth, and before Him (in front of Him; in His very presence) we shall persuade (prevail upon; convince; win over, assure; render tranquil) our hearts,

20. because even if our heart may continually condemn (censure; know-down by experience), God is constantly greater than our heart, and He knows everything (all things).

21. Beloved ones [other MSS: brothers], if our heart should not be condemning (censuring) us, we constantly have freedom in speaking (boldness) toward (to) God,

22. and whatever we may continuously ask (habitually request) we keep on receiving from Him, because we are habitually keeping (attentively watching over, guarding and serving) His commands and are constantly doing (performing; constructing) the things [that are] pleasing (acceptable) in His sight (before Him).

23. And this is His command: namely that we should be continuously believing by the Name (or in the Name; for the Name) of His Son, Jesus Christ, and should be constantly (habitually) loving one another, according as He gives a command to us [or just as He gave a commandment for us].

24 And the one habitually watching to attentively keep His commands continuously remains (dwells; abides) within Him, and He Himself within him. And within this we are constantly coming to know by experience that He is continuously abiding (dwelling; remaining) within us, from out of the Spirit which He gives (gave) to us.


1. Beloved ones, stop believing (you must not continually believe) every spirit (expression of some influence), but rather, you folks must constantly examine, test and prove the spirits (influences) to assay (prove) if they are existing from out of God, because many false prophets have gone (come) out into the ordered system (world; cosmos) and continue there.

2. Within this you continually come to know by experience the Spirit of God (God’s Spirit): every spirit which constantly speaks in accord with (says the same as; speaks like; confesses; avows) Jesus Christ having come and continuing in flesh, continuously exists being (is) from out of God [other MSS: every spirit confessing Jesus Christ to have come in flesh is forth from God],

3. and every spirit (influence; breath) which is not habitually speaking in accord with (speaking like; avowing; confessing) the One, Jesus [some MSS +: {the} Lord, having come in flesh] is not out of (does not originate in) God. And this [spirit, expression, or speech which is not in accord with Jesus] is (continuously exists being) of the antichrist (pertains to the antichrist; of something in the place of Christ) ﷓ which you folks have heard that it is constantly (repeatedly; habitually) coming, and now (at the present time) exist within (is in) the ordered system (world) already (before now).

4. Little children, you continuously exist from out of God [or you exist with God as your source you originate your being from God], and you have conquered (overcome) and are now victorious over them, because greater is the One (He) within you than the one within the ordered system (world; cosmos; universe).

5. They themselves exist being from out of the ordered system [or they exist with the world as their source; they originate their being from the system]. On account of this they continually speak from out of the system (they habitually speak out of the world [as a source and origin]), and the ordered system (world) constantly hears them.

6. We continuously exist (are) from out of God. The one habitually coming to know God by experience is continually hearing us (or: hearing what comes from, or pertains to, us). He who does not exist from out of God is not hearing (listening to) us. From out of this we constantly know by experiences the Spirit (or, spirit; influence) of the Truth, and the spirit (influence) of wandering (deception; error; straying).

7. Beloved ones, we should be continuously loving one another, because love (lit. the Love) exists continuously (is) from out of God, and every one continuously loving has been born and exist being a born-one from out of God, and constantly experiences knowledge of God (or: comes to know by experiences of God; gains knowledge by the experience of God).

8. The one not habitually loving has not come to know God by experience, because God continuously exists being Love [or for God is Love].

9. Within this God’s Love is manifested (was made visible) within us (among us), in that (because) God has sent (dispatched) His uniquely-born (only-begotten) Son as an Apostle into the ordered system (world), to the end that we may live (experience life) through Him.

10. Within this exists (is) the Love, not that we have loved [other MSS:… that we love] God, but rather that He Himself loves (loved) us and sends (sent) His Son as an apostle: a propitiatory covering around our sins (failures to hit the target).

11. Beloved ones, since thus (in that manner) God loves (loved) us. we also are constantly indebted (under obligation) to habitually love one another.

12. No one (not even one) has yet once (ever yet) gazed upon God as an object in a theater (as a public spectacle). If we are (or: may be) habitually loving one another, God constantly remains (dwells; abides) within us and His Love is existing having been brought to its goal (matured and perfected) within us.

13. Within this we are continually knowing by experience that we are constantly remaining (dwelling; abiding) within Him and He Himself within us, because He has given to us from out of His Spirit.  

14. And we have gazed upon this public situation, and are repeatedly testifying (giving witness) that the Father has sent forth (dispatched as an Apostle) the Son [the] Savior of the world (the ordered system; the universe).

15. Whoever may speak in accord (confess; avow; say like words; say the same thing; agree) that Jesus exists being (is continuously) God’s Son, God continuously dwells (abides), remaining in him, and he himself within God.

16. And we have come by experience to know and have believed and are convinced of the Love which God has (holds) continuously within us. God exists continually being Love (God is Love), and the one continuously remaining (dwelling; abiding) within the Love, is continuously remaining (dwelling; abiding) within God – and God constantly dwells (remains; abides) within him.

17. Within this the Love has been brought to its goal (been matured and perfected) with us to the end that we may continuously have freedom of speech (boldness) within the day of separation (distinction; judgment; judicial process; administration of justice), because just as (down, in accord as) That One is (exists continuously being), we also continuously exist being within this ordered system (world).

18. Fear does not exist within the Love, but rather perfect love (mature love; love having reached its goal) repeatedly (habitually) throws the fear outside, because the fear constantly holds a pruning (has a curtailment {a checking; restraint; a lopping off – thus, a correction}). But the one habitually fearing has not been perfected (has not been brought to the goal of maturity) within the Love.

19. We are [some MSS +: now] habitually loving (or. as a subj.: we should be constantly loving) because He Himself first loved (loves) us.

20. If anyone may say, AI am constantly loving God,” and may be habitually hating (regarding with ill-will) his brother, he is a liar (he exists being a false one). For the one not habitually loving his brother – whom he has looked at and now sees – he continues being unable (he has no power) to be loving God. Whom he has not seen (or looked at).

21. And we continuously hold (have) this command from Him, to the end that the one continuously loving God may (or should) also habitually love his brother.


1. Everyone continuously believing that Jesus is (exists being) the Christ (the Anointed One; the Messiah) has been born and is now a born-one (bairn) from out of God. And everyone continuously loving the One begetting (giving birth) may also (should also) love the one having been born out of Him.

2. Within this we repeatedly know by experiences that we are constantly loving God’s children, whenever we are (or may be) habitually loving God and may be habitually doing (performing) His commands.

3. For this is (exists being) the Love of God (God’s Love): to the end that we may (should) continuously observe (watch over so as to keep and guard) His commands – and His commands are not (do not exist being) heavy (weighty, thus. burdensome)

4. that everyone having been born and now being a born one, from out of God continuously overcomes (habitually conquers) the ordered system (world). And this is the victory (conquest) overcoming (conquering) the ordered system (world): our faith!

5. Now who is the one continuously overcoming (conquering) the ordered system (world) if not the one continuously believing that Jesus is (continuously exists being) the Son of God (God]s Son).

6. This One coming through water and blood and spirit, Jesus Christ. Not within the water only (alone) [or not in only water], but rather within the water and within the blood [MS A reads: within the water and within the spirit; a few MSS:… but rather within the blood and within the spirit], and the Spirit is (continuously exists being) the One continuously testifying (bearing witness), because the Spirit is (exists being) the Truth! [or… and the Spirit (or the spirit) is the One (one) continuously testifying THAT the Spirit is The Truth!].

7. Because three are the ones constantly testifying (bearing witness):

8. the spirit and the water and the blood, and these three are [coming; proceeding] into the One [or… are existing into one thing;… are in unison;… are in agreement]

9. Since (if) we are habitually receiving the testimony (witness) of men, the testimony (witness) of God (God’s testimony) is (exists being) greater, because it is God’s testimony that He has testified (witnessed) and now exists as testimony, concerning His Son.

10. The one continuously believing into God’s Son constantly holds (has) the testimony (witness) [p. 74 and A +: of God] within himself; the one not believing in God [MS A: the Son] has made Him a liar, because he has not believed into the testimony (witness) which God has testified concerning His Son.

11. And this is (exist being) the testimony (witness): that God gives (gave) Life pertaining to the Ages (age-lasting life; eonian life; Life through the Ages) to us, and the Life continuously exists (is) within His Son!

12. The one continually holding (constantly having) the Son continuously holds (constantly has) the Life. The one not continuously holding (constantly having) God’s Son does not have (hold) the Life. [note: does it seem that the Son is the Life?]

13 I write these things to you folks, to the end that, having seen, you may know that you are holding (you folks constantly have) Life pertaining to the Ages (age testing life; eonian life; Life through the Ages) – for the ones (in the ones) continuously believing into the Name of God’s Son.

14. And this is the freedom of speech (boldness) which we constantly have (hold) toward Him: that if we ourselves should keep on asking (persistently request) anything according to (down from) His will [MS A: Name]. He is continuously hearing us.

15. And if we have seen and thus know that He constantly hears us, whatever we may keep on requesting, we have seen and are aware that we habitually have the requests (things asked for) which we have requested from Him.

16 If anyone of you may see his brother habitually failing to hit a target (sinning), with a failure (error; offence) not toward death, he shall ask (request) and He will give life to him – for those habitually failing to hit a target (sinning) not toward death. There is a failure to hit a target (sin) toward death. I am not saying that he should ask about (concerning) that one.

17. All injustice (contrariness to the Way pointed out) is a failure to hit the target (sin; a failure toward the Purpose), yet there is a failure to hit a target (that is] not toward death.

18. We have seen and thus know that everyone being one having been born from out of God is not habitually failing to hit the target (sinning; falling short of the Purpose), but rather the one being born from out of God habitually keeps a guarded watch over himself (keeps himself), and the fellow (the one; the man) that causes misery or painful labor is not habitually touching him [or the disadvantageous and worthless situation does not repeatedly lay hold of him; the base fellow is not constantly assailing him; the wicked or evil one is not continuously fastening himself upon him].

19. We have seen and thus know that we are continuously existing from out of God, yet the whole (entire) ordered system is continuously lying outstretched (lying as asleep, idle or dead; reclining) within the gush of misery (within the disadvantageous, laborious and worthless situation; within the sorry plight; within the wicked or evil one),

20. yet we have seen and thus know that God’s Son has arrived and is continuously here and He has given thorough understanding (comprehension; thought; intelligence; input through the mind) to the end that we may constantly know [or we constantly know] by experience the True One (the Real One; the Genuine One), and we constantly exist within the True One, within His Son, Jesus Christ. This One is the True God and Life pertaining to the Ages (age-lasting life; eonian life; Life through the Ages).

21. Little children (born ones) keep yourselves in custody (guarded), away from the idols (the external appearances; the forms).


FIRST JOHN – Translated by [Jonathan Mitchell] ~ BIBLE STUDY           1


Pin It on Pinterest