1.  Paul, one commissioned and sent off as an emissary from Jesus Christ (or: an apostle of Christ Jesus), through the effect of God’s will and purpose, and Timothy, the brother, to God’s called-out assembly – the one being (existing) within the midst of Corinth, together with all those set-apart (the holy ones; the saints) being (existing) within [the] whole [region of] Achaia:

2.  Grace (the influence and boon of gracious favor, kindness, joy and goodwill) and peace [= shalom] from God, our Father and Lord, Jesus Christ (or: from our Father, God, and [the] Owner, Jesus Christ [= Messiah]).

3.  The God and Father of our Master, Jesus Christ (or: our Lord and Owner, Jesus [the] Anointed One [= Messiah]) [is] One full of words of ease and thoughts of wellness (or: [is] well-spoken of and blessed): the Father of the compassions and sympathetic pities, and God of every calling to one’s side for aid, comfort, consolation and encouragement (or: of all functioning of a paraclete),

4. the One continuously calling us to [His] side to give aid, comfort, consolation and encouragement (or: the One habitually functioning as our Paraclete) upon [the occurrence of] all our squeezing pressure (or: our every affliction and tribulation), [directing and leading] us into the [sphere or situation] to be continuously able (to constantly have power) to keep on performing as paracletes in repeatedly giving aid, comfort, consolation and encouragement for those within the midst of every pressure (squeezing, affliction and tribulation), through means of the intimate aid, comfort and encouragement with which we, ourselves, are being constantly called alongside by God to [from Him] receive aid, comfort, consolation and encouragement (or: from which we, ourselves, are habitually being given the services of the Paraclete by God),

5.  because correspondingly as the effects and results of the Christ’s experiences and sufferings are progressively superabounding into us, in the same way, through the Christ (the Anointed One; [= the Messiah]) our calling [folks] to our side to give [them] help, comfort and encouragement is also progressively superabounding!

6.  Now whether we are being continually squeezed and compressed in tribulation over (or: on behalf of) assistance (or: a calling to [His] side for aid and comfort) and deliverance (salvation, rescue, health, wholeness and restoration) pertaining to and for you folks, or whether we are repeatedly being given intimate assistance, comfort and encouragement over (or: because of) your assistance and comfort – referring to [that aid] which is continuously performing inward work and operation within the midst of remaining under in endurance of the very experiences and sufferings which we, ourselves, are habitually experiencing and suffering –

7.  our expectation (or: hope) [stands] on good footing (or: [is] stable, unwavering, with feet firmly planted) over (or: with regard to) you folks, having seen and continuing to know that just as you are (continue to be) common participants (partners and sharers) of the experiences and sufferings, in the same way [are you] of the aid and encouraging comfort as well.

8.  For we do not continue intending (wanting; purposing) for you folks to continue being ignorant (without intimate knowledge), brothers, over [other MSS: concerning] our squeezing pressure (tribulation; affliction) – referring to [that] which happened [other MSS +: to us] in Asia – that corresponding to an act of overshooting or throwing beyond the target (= something extreme and excessive; comparable to a hyperbole) over and above [our] power and ability, we were weighted down (burdened [with difficulty]) so as to be without an exit (with no way out) for us, even to continue living!

9.  Further yet, we ourselves had held and continued having, within ourselves, the result and effect from a decision of the Death (or: from a judgment which meant death) – to the end that we may not exist being ones having put trust and confidence upon ourselves, but to the contrary, upon the God Who is continually (habitually; repeatedly) awakening and raising up the dead ones!

10.  He Who snatched (dragged so as to rescue) us from out of the midst of the very prime (or: peak) of Death (or: out of a death of such proportions) will also drag us to Himself – into Whom we have placed our hope and expectation so as to yet rely that He also will Himself still drag us further toward Himself.

11.  Your habitually cooperating and working together in undergirding support over us (= on behalf of us, or, concerning our situation), even in the need (or: and by the [or: your] petition regarding [our] need), [gives the result] that forth from out of many faces (= people) the effect and result of grace – [coming] into us through (or: by means of) many folks – can (may) be sent (or: given) in the ease, prosperity and wellness of grace over us [other MSS: you] (or: may be given in gratitude on our behalf).

12.  For our boasting is this: the witness and testimony of our conscience that within and in union with God’s simplicity [other MSS: quality and aspect of being set-apart (holiness)] and clearness from a decision (judgment) made in sunlight – and not within fleshly wisdom or cleverness – and further, within the midst of and in union with God’s grace, we were turned back to live our lives within the midst of the system (world of religion, culture and government), and [to do so] even more exceedingly toward you folks.

13.  So then, we are not now writing other things to you, but rather either what you continue reading and recognizing, or even what you folks continue progressing to full, intimate knowledge about.  Yet I continue expecting and hoping that unto the goal (until maturity and the finished product) you will in addition accurately and intimately come to know by experience,

14.  just as you added personal knowledge about us, partly, because we are your cause for boasting, exactly as you also [are] ours – within and in union with the Day which pertains to, has its source in, and is, our Lord (Master; Owner), Jesus.

15.  So, with (in; by) this persuaded confidence, I had formerly continued intending (planning and purposing) to come to you folks, so that you folks could have (may hold) a second grace (influence and boon of undeserved favor, kindness and goodwill) [other MSS: joy],

16.  and to pass on through you [i.e., through your city] into Macedonia , and to come back again to you from Macedonia , and [then] to be sent forward (perhaps: to be accompanied or escorted on part of the journey) by you folks [other MSS: from you] into the Judean [area].

17.  Therefore, continuing in planning and intending this, surely I do not consequently engage in joking (employ levity; use lightness; may = resort to fickleness), do I?  Or the things which I habitually plan and purpose, am I constantly planning down from [the] flesh (or: in accordance with flesh), so that it may be with me, “Yes, yes,” and “No, no!”?

18.  Now God [is] full of faith and reliable (faithful; trustworthy)!  [With] that, our message (word) toward you folks is not [other MSS: did not come to be] “Yes,” and [then, or, at the same time] “No,”

19.  for the Son of God, Christ Jesus – the One within the midst of and in union with you folks – being heralded and publicly proclaimed through us – through Silvanus [this may = Silas], Timothy and me – did not come to be (or: was not birthed) “Yes,” and yet, “No,” but to the contrary, [the divine] “Yes” has been birthed and remains in existence within Him (or: in union with Him, “Yes” has happened and continues being; or: within the midst of Him, [the] “Yes” has come into being)!

20.  So (For) as many as [be] God’s promises, [they are] the “Yes,” within and in union with Him.  Wherefore also, through Him [is] The Amen (or: the affirmation; the “It is so”) in (or: by) God [directed] toward glory (a good reputation; a manifestation which calls forth praise) through us.

21.  Now God [is] the One repeatedly placing us on good, firm footing (constantly stabilizing and establishing us) and completely (or: instantly, in one point in time) anointing us, together with you folks, into Christ.

22.  He [is] also the One completely (or: instantly, in one point in time) sealing us (imprinting us with [His] mark of identity and ownership), even (and) completely (instantly, in one point in time) giving the advance transaction of the agreement (or: the pledge and token payment guaranteeing full payment for purchase; or: a dowry) of the Spirit (or: which is the spirit; or: having its source and origin in the Spirit; or: which belongs and pertains to the spirit) within the midst of our hearts.

23.  Now I, myself, continue to call upon God [to be] a witness upon my own soul (mind, will, emotions; inner life; self), that in myself continuing in holding back and sparing of you folks, I no longer came (or: I did not yet go) into Corinth.

24.  Not that we are constantly acting like your owners (exercising lordship with regards to you; performing like your masters) with regard to the faith, but to the contrary, we exist being (we are) fellow workers regarding and pertaining to your joy, for you folks have taken a stand and continue to stand in, by and for the faith.


1.  Now I decided this in (for; by) myself: to not come (or: go) to you folks again in anxiety (or: grief; sorrow; sadness; = to make another painful visit).

2.  For since (or: if) I, myself, continually cause you anxiety (sadness; sorrow; grief; pain), who (which one) [is] the one constantly putting me in a good frame of mind (habitually cheering me and putting my mind at ease), if not (or: except) the one being constantly made sorrowful, sad and anxious by me?

3.  And so I write this very thing, so that in coming I may (should) not have anxiety, sadness or grief from those concerning whom it was being necessary (binding) for me to constantly rejoice, having been persuaded and now placing trust and confidence upon you all, because my joy has its source in all of you folks (or: my joy exists being what pertains to all of your [situations]),

4.  for I write to you from out of the midst of much pressure (squeezing; affliction; tribulation) and compression (or: confinement) of heart – through many tears – not so that you may be made anxious or sad, but rather to the end that you can (may; should) experience intimate knowledge of the love which I progressively possess and superabundantly hold [being directed] into the midst of you folks.

5.  Now if anyone has caused anxiety, pain, distress, sorrow or sadness, he has not distressed me, but rather you all, to an extent – so that (= because of which) I should not continue to be putting weight upon [you folks].

6.  This assessment (or: reproof) – the one [held/given] by the majority – [should be] sufficient (enough) for (to) such a person,

7.  so that in its place you folks are to extend grace and to perform as paracletes (call him alongside to give aid, encouragement, comfort and consolation), lest somehow such a person may be swallowed up by more excessive anxiety (or: drunk down in, and to, more abundant sorrow, grief, pain, distress and sadness).

8.  Therefore, I continue to call you folks alongside (I now act the paraclete, to encourage and entreat you) to affirm (make valid; ratify; authoritatively confirm) love into him,

9.  for I write, also, into this [purpose], to the end that I can personally (intimately and experientially) come to know the proof (evidence) from your testing – whether you folks continue being those who submissively listen unto all men (or: hear and obey as you proceed into all situations).

10.  Now to whom you repeatedly extend grace [concerning] anything (or: for whom you constantly give grace [in] anything), I also [do], for you see, in whatever I, myself, have also been extend grace – since I have been extended grace for something (or, as a middle: for what I, myself, have extended grace – if I have extended grace for anything) – [it is] on account of and for the sake of you folks, within the face of and in union with the presence of Christ,

11.  to the end that we may (can) not at some point be held or possessed in more things or situations by the adversary  (or: be made by satan to desire to have more than other folks; be overreached by the adversary so as to desire personal advantage), for we do not continue being without intimate and experiential knowledge (or: we are not still ignorant) of the effects and results from its directing our minds.

12.  Now on coming (or: going) into Troas – [proceeding] into Christ’s good news (message of ease and wellness) [there], a door, also, having been opened up and yet standing open within [the] Lord [= Christ or Yahweh] (or: in union with the Master and Owner) –

13.  I had not had a release (or: a relaxing; a letting flow) in (or: by; to; for) my spirit regarding my continuing to not find Titus, my brother, but instead, on sending off arrangements for myself among them and bidding them farewell, I went off into Macedonia.

14.  Now grace [is] in and by God – in (by) the One constantly causing us to triumph (or: progressively leading us in a triumphal procession) at all times, within and in union with the Christ (the Anointed One; = the Messiah), and progressively (habitually) setting in clear light (manifesting) the fragrance (aroma; odor) of His intimate knowledge (or: of the experience of intimacy which has its source in knowing Him; or: the knowledge which is Him) through us in every place,

15.  because within God, we continuously exist being Christ’s sweet fragrance (or: because we are an aroma of wellness for God which has it source in Christ; or: because by God we continue being an odor of ease which is Christ) within and among those being progressively delivered (habitually rescued; continuously made whole and returned to their original state and condition) – yet also within and among those being progressively loosed-away (or: habitually destroying themselves; or: repeatedly being lost):

16.  to (in; for) these [latter ones], a stench from out of Death, [leading] into death (or: from the midst of [one] death on into [another, or, more] death); yet to (in; for) those [former ones] a fragrance from out of Life, [leading] into life (or: from out of the midst of [one Life] on into [another, or, more] life).  So who [is] adequate, sufficient or qualified [in facing or approaching] toward these matters?

17.  For we are not – as the majority [are] – ones performing as hucksters in shameful traffic for unworthy gain, constantly peddling God’s message (God’s thought and idea; the Word of God; God’s Logos), but to the contrary, we are constantly and habitually speaking as from out of the midst of that which is decided about when viewing in clear sunlight – and further, as from out of the midst of God; down within, in union with and in the place of God – within Christ!


1.  Are we beginning again to continue commending ourselves (giving ourselves a standing together with [you folks]) as if we, like some, now need letters of recommendation to you, or from you?

2.  You, yourselves, are and continue being our letter – being one having been written (inscribed; imprinted; engraved) within your hearts [other MSS: our hearts]; one progressively being experientially known and continuously read by all people (men) –

3.  because you are and continue being those continuously set in clear light and progressively manifested: Christ’s letter (a letter whose source is Christ and which is Christ), being one dispensed in attending service by us, being one having been written (inscribed; imprinted; engraved), not in black (= not with ink), but rather, by (with) God’s Spirit: One continuously living (or: in a Breath-effect which has its origin in God Who is constantly living); not in (or: on) stone tablets, but rather within (or: on) tablets which are hearts made of flesh (or: hearts pertaining to the flesh).

4.  Now through the Christ we continuously possess (have and hold) this sort of persuaded trust and faith-based confidence [directed and leading] toward God

5.  – not that we are competent (adequately enough; sufficiently qualified) from ourselves to logically evaluate or count anything as it were forth from out of ourselves – but to the contrary, our competency (adequacy; sufficiency; qualification) [is] forth from out of the midst of (having its source in) God,

6.  Who also adequately qualifies us (or: made us competent and sufficient) [to be] attending servants of an arrangement that is new in quality (or: pertaining to a new kind of covenant that has a different character and is fresh and effective) – not of [the] letter (not pertaining to the result of that which is written down; not having its source in the effect of a written text), but in contrast, of a Breath-effect (pertaining to the result of [the] Spirit; having its source in and being the effect of spirit), for the effect of letter habitually kills (the result of writing something into a text repeatedly puts away in death), yet the Spirit (or: the spirit; the breath-effect) continuously gives life (repeatedly makes alive; progressively forms life; habitually creates life)!

7.  Now since (or: if) the attending service of the Death (the dispensing of provision pertaining to and which has its source in and results in death) – being one that has been formed by a beaten impression of types and the outlines of patterns that exists as engravings within letters and the effects of written texts chiseled on stones – was birthed and came into existence within glory (in a manifestation which called forth praise and with a good reputation), so that the sons of Israel came to be continuously unable (habitually having no power) to intently gaze into the face of Moses, because of the glory and manifestation which came from his face – which [glory] was being progressively unemployed so as to be brought down to having no work, to  be ineffective and nullified –

8.  how shall not rather the attending service and dispensing of the provision of the Spirit (which has its source in the Breath-effect; pertaining to and being the effect of the spirit) be within glory (exist in the midst of a manifestation which calls forth praise; be in union with a good reputation)?

9.  For since (or: if) the attending service and dispensing of the condemnation (that brings the down-decisions) [had] glory, to a much greater degree is the attending service and the dispensing of the fairness and equity in rightwised relationships which correspond to the Way pointed out being progressively surrounded and continuously exceeding in glory (with a manifestation which calls forth praise; to a good reputation)!

10.  In fact, even that which had been made glorious in this, the in-part, has not been glorified so as to now be glorious, on account of the transcending glory which is constantly and progressively over-casting [us],

11.  for since that which was being progressively unemployed and brought down to doing no work and being made ineffective and nullified [came] through glory, to a much greater extent is the continuously remaining (dwelling; abiding) one [existing] within the midst of glory.

12.  Therefore, progressively possessing (having and holding) an expectation (hope) such as this, we habitually use much freedom of speech and bold lack of reserve, unlike Moses.

13.  He kept on putting a head-covering (veil) upon his face so that the sons of Israel were not to gaze intently into the goal (the end; the result; the termination; the fruition) of that which was being progressively unemployed and brought down to doing no work and being made ineffective and nullified.

14.  But further, the results of their mental conceptions, intellectual workings and thought processes were petrified (made to be a stony concretion; were hardened and made callous [note: the word became a medical term for being covered with thick skin], for until this very day the same head-covering (veil) continues remaining (dwelling; abiding) upon the reading of the old covenant (arrangement; thorough placement) – [it] continues not being uncovered (unveiled) – because it continues being progressively unemployed and brought down to doing no work and being made ineffective and nullified (made idle and useless) within and in union with Christ.

15.  Still furthermore, until today, whenever Moses should be repeatedly read [e.g., in the synagogue], a head-covering (veil) continues lying upon their heart (= the innermost being of the group).

16.  Yet whenever the time should be reached when it [= the heart] will twist and turn upon [so as to face] toward [the] Lord [= Christ or Yahweh], “the head-covering (veil) is by habit progressively taken from around [it].”

[note: a quote of Ex. 34:34 LXX, where Moses would enter in to speak with Yahweh; the same act was performed, by the husband, on the bride after the ceremony]

17.  Now the Lord [= Christ or Yahweh] continuously exists being (is) the Spirit (the Breath-effect), yet where [the] Lord’s Breath-effect (Spirit) [blows, there is] freedom (or: and so in the place in which the Breath-effect {the Spirit} of [the] Lord [= Christ or Yahweh] [blows], liberty [comes]).

18.  Now we, ourselves, all – having a face that has been uncovered and remains unveiled – being ones who by a mirror are continuously observing, as ourselves, the Lord’s [= Yahweh’s or Christ’s] glory (or: being those who progressively reflect – from ourselves as by a mirror – the glory of [our] Owner), are being continuously and progressively transformed into the very same image, from glory into glory – in accord with and exactly as – from [the] Lord’s Breath-effect (or: from [the] Spirit of [the] Lord [= Christ or Yahweh]).


1.  Because of this – while continuously possessing (having and holding) this attending service and dispensing of provision – correspondingly as we were mercied (shown mercy), we do not habitually behave with a bad attitude, or perform in a worthless manner, or act from out of a mood or motive that is poor in quality.

2.  To the contrary, we speak-away from ourselves (or: spurn; renounced; disowned) the hidden things pertaining to the shame (whose source is [our] shame; that result in dishonorable conduct or bring disgrace), not habitually walking around (= living our lives) in craftiness (or: in union with the capability for every work; within readiness to do anything), neither constantly diluting or adulterating God’s message (God’s thought and idea; the Word of God), but rather, in a manifestation of the Truth (by a setting of the Reality in clear Light), we are progressively placing ourselves together in addressing every conscience of mankind (or: commending ourselves toward every human conscience), in God’s sight (= before God).

3.  Now if the good news coming from us (or: our news of ease and wellness) continues being covered from having been veiled with a head-covering, it continues being thus covered within the midst of and among those on their way to ruin (being progressively lost; repeatedly loosing-away and destroying themselves),

4.  within and among which folks the God of this age (or: the God who owns this indefinite time-period; the God Who is the source of this eon) blinds (deprived of the ability to see) the effects of the intellects and mental powers (the results of directing the mind to something) of those without faith (of the un-trusting ones; of the unbelieving), [leading them] into the [situation that] the shining forth of light and the illumination (enlightenment) of the good news of the glory of the Christ (or: of the message of ease and wellness whose source is the glory of the Anointed One; of the glad tidings pertaining to the manifestation which calls forth praise to the [Messiah]) – Who continuously exists being God’s image (a resemblance and likeness of [Conc. Text +: the unseen {invisible}] God) – is not to shine forth as the dawn to irradiate them.

5.  For, you see, we are not constantly preaching (proclaiming; heralding) ourselves, but rather, Christ Jesus [as] Lord (or: Jesus Christ, [the] Lord [= Messiah or Yahweh]), yet ourselves [as] your slaves, because of Jesus,

6.  because the God saying (or: the God Who once was saying), “Light will shine forth (give light as from a torch; gleam) from out of the midst of darkness,” [is] the One who shines forth within the midst of our hearts, with a view to illumination (or: a shining forth; an effulgence) of the intimate and experiential knowledge of God’s glory (a praise-inducing manifestation whose source and origin is God, and which is God), within Christ’s face (countenance).

7.  Now we presently and continuously hold (have and possess) this treasure within containers (jars; vessels; equipment) made of baked clay (e.g., pottery) so that the transcendence of the power (or: the over-cast of the ability; or: the overwhelming which comes from the power) may habitually originate in God – and not from out of us!

8.  We are men being constantly pressed [as grapes] on every [side] (or: squeezed and constricted within the midst of everything; given affliction and tribulation by everyone), but yet not constantly confined by a narrow space or a tight place so as to be restricted or hemmed in (= not cramped beyond movement); we are those being repeatedly made to be without resources, a place to walk or a means for conveyance (or, as a mid.: we are habitually at a loss about things, in doubt and perplexed), but yet not continuously caused to be living without resources or a place to walk or a means for conveyance (or, mid.: we are not continually living at a loss, being in doubt, being greatly perplexed or in utmost despair);

9.  we are men being constantly pursued and persecuted, but yet not habitually left in the lurch, being forsaken down within some situation; we are those being repeatedly thrown down, but yet not continuously caused to fall apart (be loosed-away into ruin; be destroyed) –

10.  at all times continuously carrying around (or: bearing about) among the body Jesus’ being put to death (or: within [our] body the deadening of Jesus; or: within the midst of the body the dying associated with Jesus), to the end that the life, also, of Jesus (or: so that also the life which comes from and is Jesus; or: so that Jesus’ life) can (may) be set in clear light and manifested, within our body.

11.  For we, ourselves – the continuously living ones, are ever being repeatedly handed over (continuously delivered) into death – because of Jesus – to the end that the life, also, of Jesus (or: so that also the life which comes from and is Jesus; or: so that Jesus’ life) can (may) be set in clear light and manifested – within our mortal flesh!

12.  So then, the Death is repeatedly operating and inwardly working within us, yet the Life [is constantly operative] within you folks.

13.  Now continuously possessing (having and holding) faith’s very breath-effect (or: the same spirit of faith; or: the Spirit which itself is faith; or: the spirit which itself comes from the Faith), corresponding to that which has been written, “I trust, therefore I speak (or: I believed, for this reason, I spoke),” we, ourselves, also, are constantly trusting and believing, therefore we are also habitually speaking,

14.  having seen, and now knowing, that the One at one point arousing and raising Jesus [other MSS: the Lord Jesus] will also arouse and raise us up together with Jesus [other MSS: through Jesus], and will present us (stand us alongside) together with you folks,

15.  for all things (the whole; everything) [are (is)] because of you folks, to the end that the grace (the boon and influence of gracious favor, joy, kindness and goodwill) – increasing and becoming more than enough through the greater part (the majority) of the people – can (should) cause the benefits of grace (or: the wellness of grace; or: the attitude of gratitude; or: the expression of thanksgiving) to be surrounding in superabundance, [leading] into God’s glory (or: [proceeding] into the praise-inducing manifestation of God)!

16.  For this reason we do not habitually behave with a bad attitude, or perform in a worthless manner, or act from out of a mood that is poor in quality.  But to the contrary, even if (or: since also) our outside man (or: outer humanity) is being progressively wasted away (is constantly being decayed and brought to ruin and corruption), our inside man (inner humanity) is day by day (or: from day to day) being progressively made new again in kind and quality so as to have a different character that is fresh and effective.

17.  So, you see, the momentary light [aspect or character] (or: lightness) of the pressure and squeezing (the affliction and tribulation) is progressively working down in us a corresponding and consecutively transcending eonian weight of glory (or: is repeatedly producing for us a heavy burden of glory, down from one over-casting into another over-cast, each of which pertains to the Age; is now accomplishing for us an according, age-lasting weight of a good reputation – [each] a transcending one [leading] into [another] transcending one; is continuously effecting in us a weight which has the character and quality of the realm of the Age and which belongs to a manifestation which calls forth praise),

18.  while we are not constantly fixing our gaze on or carefully noting the things that are being constantly seen or repeatedly observed, but rather, [we are continuously look at] those things not being constantly seen or repeatedly observed, because the things being constantly seen and observed [are] for a season (temporary; set toward a certain situation), but those things not being habitually seen or observed pertain to and have their source in the ages ([are] eonian).


1.  For we have seen, and thus know, that if our house of the tent (or: our house which is the tent) upon the earth should be loosed down, we constantly have (continuously hold; presently possess) a structure (a building) forth from out of the midst of God: an eonian house (a house having the qualities and character which pertain to the Age; an age-lasting house) – not made by hands – within the heavens.

2.  For, you see, even within this one we are continuously groaning, utterly longing and constantly yearning to fully enter within and to clothe upon ourselves (to dress upon ourselves) our dwelling-house (habitation) – the one from out of the midst of heaven –

3.  since, in fact, also being men clothing themselves (being dressed, also), we shall not be found naked.

4.  For we also, being (continually existing) within the tent, are continuously groaning, being the ones constantly weighed down (burdened).  Upon which [situation] we are not wanting to go out from (to unclothe; to strip; to undress) but rather to fully enter within and to clothe upon ourselves, to the end that the mortal (or: the mortal thing) may be drunk down and swallowed under (or: by) The Life.

5.  Now the One working this down, producing and fashioning us into this very [situation is] God, the One giving to us the down payment (earnest; pledge; first installment) of the Breath-effect (or: which is the Spirit).

6.  Being, then, at all times and always courageous and of cheerful confidence, and having seen and thus knowing that continuously staying at home (dwelling within the district) within the body we are continually away from the Lord’s home (we are out of the Lord’s district)

7.  – for we are habitually walking about through faith and trust, not through perception of the appearance of external form –

8.  yet we are constantly courageous and of cheerful confidence, even continuously delighting and thinking it good to a greater extent (with exceeding preference) to be away from home (to be out of the district), forth from out of the body, and to be staying at home (to be dwelling in the district) [with orientation] towards the Lord [= Christ or Yahweh].

9.  Therefore, also, we are constantly loving the value (ambitious for the honor) – whether staying at home (dwelling within the district) or being away from home (out of the district) – to constantly be men (ones) [that are] well-pleasing to Him (that give satisfaction for Him)

10.  for it is necessary for us – the all – (or: for us all) to be manifested (to be set in light so as to be clearly seen) in front of Christ’s elevated place which is ascended by steps (from which to speak in public assembly), to the end that each one may himself take into kindly keeping (for care and provision) the things – through the body – [oriented] toward what things he practices (or: accomplished), whether good or bad (or: whether serviceable or inefficient; whether virtuous or vile; whether fair or foul; whether capable or careless) (or: … that each should keep and provide for the things performed through the body, [focusing] toward what things [were practiced], whether good or bad).

11.  Being, then, men having seen and thus knowing the Lord’s fear (or: the fear of the Owner and Master; the fear pertaining to [Yahweh]), we are constantly persuading mankind (men; humans).  Yet, we have been, and so remain, manifested (set in the light so as to be clearly seen) in God (by God; for God; to God).  Now I am continually expecting (hoping) to have been manifested within your consciences, also.

12.  We are not again recommending ourselves to you (making ourselves stand together for you), but rather, continue giving you a starting point and occasion (a base of operations and an incentive) of boasting over us – to the end that you folks may constantly possess (have and hold) [a position; a response; a defense] toward those continuously boasting in a face (in presentation; in personal appearance; in a surface facade) and not in [the] heart.

13.  For whether we are beside ourselves (standing without; = out of our minds), [it is] for God (in God; to God; by God); or whether we remain sane (of sound mind), [it is] for you (to you),

14.  for Christ’s love continuously holds us together.

[We are] deciding (discerning; judging) this: that [some MSS +: since] One Man died over all men (for the sake of all); consequently all died (or: accordingly, then, all the men died).

15.  And He died over all men (for the sake of all) to the end that those living may no longer live for themselves (to themselves; in themselves; by themselves), but rather for (to; in; by) the One dying and being awakened and raised up over them (for their sakes).

16.  So that we, from the present moment (from now), have seen and thus know no one according to (down from) flesh, if even we have intimately, by experience, known Christ ([the] Anointed One) according to (down from) flesh, nevertheless we now (in the present moment) no longer continue [thus] knowing [Him] by intimate experience.

17.  So that if (or: since) anyone [is] within Christ ([the] Anointed One), [there is] a new (of different kind, character and quality) creation (framing; founding; act of creation): the original things (the beginning [situations]; the archaic and primitive things) passed by (went to the side).  Consider!  New things have come into existence (have been birthed; or: It has become new things; or: He has been birthed and now exists being ones of a different kind, character and quality).

18.  Yet all things [are] (the Whole [is]) forth from out of the midst of God – the One transforming us down to be other [than we were] (bringing us down into another place or state of being; changing us to correspond with other [perceptions and conceptions]; altering us down to be another [person]; changing us from enmity to friendship; reconciling us) in Himself (by Himself; to Himself; for Himself), through Christ, and giving to us the attending service of the transformation to be other [than we were] (the lowering of us into another [position]; the changing of us to correspond with other [situations; perceptions]; the alteration for us to be another [person]; the change from enmity to friendship; the reconciliation),

19. as that God was existing within Christ (God was and continued being within [the] Anointed One) continuously transforming [the] world ([the] system of culture, religion and government) down to be other [than it is] (progressively bring [the] ordered system down into another [position]; repeatedly changing [the] universe to correspond with other [conditions; perceptions]; progressively altering [the] ordered arrangement down to be another one; habitually and progressively changing [the] world from enmity to friendship; reconciling [the] world [of mankind]) in Himself (to Himself; for Himself; by Himself), not accounting to them (not putting to their account; not logically considering for them; not reasoning in them) their falls to the side (their trespasses; their offences), even placing within us the Word (the Idea; the Reason; the message) of the corresponding transformation (the full alteration; the change from enmity to friendship; the conciliation).

20.  Over Christ, then (Then for Christ’s sake), we are elders of God, performing as God’s ambassadors, as [Him] continually calling alongside (performing as a paraclete) through us.  We are constantly begging and urgently asking, over Christ (for Christ’s sake): “Be transformed down (Be correspondingly altered; Be changed from enemy to friend; Be reconciled; Be altered to be another [person]) by God!” (or: “You folks must be completely exchanged in God; Be conciliated to {for} God”).

21.The One not knowing failure (sin; error) by intimate experience He made a failure over us (or: He constructed [as] a sin [offering?] for our sake; He accomplished a miss of the target for us), to the end that we may be birthed (come into existence being; come to be) God’s right-wising (God’s right relationship with fair and equitable dealing in accord with the Way pointed out; God’s justice; God’s well-ordered living with right thinking), within Him.


1.  Now we, habitually (or: constantly) working together, are continuously calling you folks alongside to aid, comfort, direct and encourage you to not accept and receive God’s grace into an empty [vessel; situation; way of life],

2.  for He continues saying, “At an acceptable season (or: In an appropriate situation; For an agreeable kairos) I fully hear and respond in regard to you, and within a day of deliverance (on a day of health, restoration             and salvation), at your cry for help, I run to give aid to you (I run with help for you).”

Consider!  [It is] now (at this moment) an especially acceptable season (a fitting situation well-directed toward reception and acceptance)!

Consider!  [It is] now (at this moment) a day of deliverance (of health, rescue, safety, salvation and restoration to the wholeness of the original state and condition)!

3.  [We are] habitually giving no one a cause for striking [a foot] against something so as to stumble (or: a reason or occasion for making a cutting attack toward someone) – not in even one thing – so that the attending service and dispensing of provision may not at any point be found flawed so as to be discredited,

4.  but to the contrary [we are] continuously placing and standing ourselves together, and recommending ourselves, as God’s attending servants who dispense provisions: within the midst of much endurance and remaining under [the situation]; in compressed squeezings, pressures, afflictions and tribulations;  within the midst of constraining necessities; within tight spots that cramp, restrict and hem us in;

5.  in [the receiving of] blows or beatings [as with a rod] or lashings; within prisons; in the midst of unsettled situations (turbulences; political instabilities; riots); within toilsome and exhausting labors; in sleepless nights (or: vigils); within times without food (or: fasts; times of hunger).

6.  [We have served and dispensed] with pureness; in personally experienced knowledge; with forbearing patience (in taking a long time before becoming emotional or rushing with passion); with useful kindness; in a set-apart (holy) spirit (or: within the midst of [the] Holy Spirit; within a hallowed breath-effect; in a set-apart attitude); in and with un-pretended (un-hypocritical; genuine) love;

7.  with and in a message of Truth (a thought, idea and Word of Reality); within God’s power and ability; through means of the tool and instruments (or: weapons; implements) of the rightwised behavior and relationships (the fairness and equity) of the Way pointed out – on the right hand and on the left;

8.  through a good reputation, and dishonor (or: through means of glory and a praise-inducing manifestation, and [through] absence of value); through words of ill omen and words of good omen (or: through bad reports and defamation, and [through] good reports and praise); as wanderers and yet real (or: as [considered being] men who deceive and lead astray, and yet [being] true);

9.  as continuing being unknown (nonentities) and yet constantly being ones fully recognized; as being those continually dying, and yet look and consider: we continue living; as being those progressively being disciplined and trained as young boys, and yet not being ones regularly delivered to death;

10.  as those being repeatedly made anxious, sad, distressed or in pain, but yet ever rejoicing; as constantly being men that are poor and destitute, but yet repeatedly making many rich (or: enriching many); as those possessing (having or holding) nothing, and yet fully possessing (accordingly having and retaining) all things.

11.  Our mouth has been opened up and continues open toward you, O Corinthians: our heart has been broadened and is now enlarged.

12.  You folks are not being constantly restricted into some limited place within us [= in our hearts], but you are being repeatedly squeezed into restrictions in your own inner sensitivities and deep feelings (within your interior organs).

13.  Now I am speaking as to children: [let’s have] the same fair exchange of recompense.  You folks also be broadened and enlarged!

14.  Do not of yourself continue becoming yoked differently (or: unevenly yoked; yoked with ones of a different sort) with folks without faith (or: by those without trust; to unbelievers), for, what mutual holding (having-with: sharing; partnership; communion; membership) [have] rightwised living and lawlessness (or: fairness and a lack of following rules; equity in right relationship which accords with the Way pointed out, and inequity or wrong which come from violation of law), or what common sharing (participation; partnership; fellowship) [is] in light [directed] toward darkness (or: [is there] for light with darkness)?

15.  And what joining of voice (concord, agreement and harmony of sound) has Christ [when faced] toward Belial [Heb. word for “worthlessness”]?  Or what part for one full of faith and trust (or: portion in a believer) [corresponds] with one who lacks faith (an unbeliever)?

16.  Now what mutual deposit (or: concurrence or agreement arrived by group decision) [does] God’s Temple [have] with idols?  For, you see, we continuously exit being (we are) a temple of [the] living God, just as God said, “I will make My home and will walk about within and among them (= I will reside, as in a house, and live My life within and among them), and I will exist being (or: I will be) their God, and they will exist being (or: will be) My people.”

17.  On which account [the] Lord [= Yahweh] says, “Instantly go forth from out of their midst – and you people will instantly be marked off by boundaries so as to be defined and restricted – and do not continue (or: stop) touching what is unclean [= ceremonially defiled], and I, Myself, will admit you folks and receive you into [Myself; My family],

18.       and I will make My existence into being a Father for you, and you will come into being (will be) sons and daughters in Me (by Me; to Me; for Me), says [the] Lord [= Yahweh] the All-strong (Almighty).”

1.  Therefore, beloved ones, continuing in possessing (having and holding) these – the [aforementioned] promises – we should at once cleanse ourselves off from every stain, pollution or ceremonial defilement of flesh and of spirit (or: whose source is flesh, and which comes from spirit; pertaining to flesh as well as to spirit), progressively bringing the state and condition of being set-apart (holiness) to full completion (or: continuing to bring [our] dedicated consecration to its goal) in God’s fear (within a fear in respect to God [p46 reads: in God’s love]).



2.  You folks make room (create space; set up an environment) for us!  We wrong no one (We at no point related to anyone unfairly or contrary to the Way pointed out; we act unjustly to no one).  We spoil no one (We caused no one to decay or be corrupted).  We have more than no one (or: We overreached no one so as to have an advantage over him).

3.  I am not now speaking with a view toward condemnation (a decision to bring [you] down), for I have said before that you folks continuously exist (are) within our hearts – into the [situations of both] to die together and to be continuously living together!

4.  [There is] much freedom of speech, frankness, outspokenness and boldness in me, toward you folks.  [There is] much boasting in me, over (in regard to) you!

I have been filled full so that I am stuffed with encouragement and comfort – I continue overflowing from the progressive superabundance which encircles me in joy which tops all our pressure and tribulation (or: by the joy upon every squeezing and affliction).

5.  For even upon our coming into Macedonia , our flesh had not had a let-up or slackening (a release so as to be at ease), but to the contrary, among all men and in every situation and manner [we were] ones being continuously pressed, rubbed together and oppressed: outside, fights and battles; inside, fears!

6.  Nevertheless God, the One continuously performing as a Paraclete for the low ones (i.e., repeatedly calling the humbled and downhearted to [His] side to give them aid, comfort and encouragement), paracleted (comforted and encouraged) us in the arrival and presence of Titus,

7.  yet, not only in his presence, but further, also within the comfort and encouragement (the influence of a paraclete) in which he was paracleted (comforted and encouraged) upon you folks [i.e., over your situation], repeatedly reporting back to us your longing (strong and anxious love with fond regret), your grievous expression of anguish and remorse, your fiery zeal over me – with result that it caused me rather to rejoice –

8.  because even if I made you sad and anxious (or: cause you pain and sorrow) in the letter, I am now not regretting or changing my purpose of conduct – even if I had been regretting and altering my purpose of conduct – for I see (observe) that that letter made you sad and anxious (pained and sorrowful), even if for an hour.

9.  Now I continue rejoicing – not that I was made sad or anxious (pained or sorrowful) – but rather, that you were made sad and anxious [leading you] into a change in thinking and frame of mind, for you were saddened and made anxious down from and in correspondence to God, to the end that you could in nothing be disadvantaged through loss, injury or damage due to (from out of) us.

10.  For, you see, the anxiety, sadness and pain down from and in correspondence to God continuously works, habitually effects and progressively produces a change in thinking and frame of mind: into a deliverance and wholeness of health (a rescue and restoration to the original state and realm; salvation) void of regret and without change in purpose.  Yet the anxiety, sadness, pain and sorrow which belongs to the world (whose origin is the organized system of religion, culture and government) is continuously working down the production of death.

11.  For consider (look)!  This very thing – the [experience for] you to be made sad and anxious down from and in accord with God – to what extent it accomplished (produces; worked down and effects) [qualities] of haste to earnest diligence in you folks; but further, verbal defense (apologetics); but still further, indignant displeasure [with the whole situation]; yet further, fear!; but then, longing (strong and anxious love with fond regret); on the other hand, fiery zeal; yes, in fact, righting of what is wrong (maintaining justice out of rightwised relationships from the fairness of the Way pointed out) – within the midst of everything and in every respect placing yourselves and standing together to continuously exist being pure in [this] matter.

12.  Consequently, even if I write (or: although I wrote) to you, [it is] not on account of the one doing wrong (behaving contrary to the Way pointed out; acting unjustly or injuriously), nor either on account of the one being wronged (being treated unfairly or unjustly; being injured), but rather on account of the [opportunity] to set in clear light and manifest toward you folks your haste to earnest diligence – that which [was] over us and on our behalf – in God’s sight.

Because of this we have been, and remain, encouraged and comforted (we have received the influence of a paraclete).

13.  Yet, in addition to our encouragement and comfort, we rejoice still more abundantly due to the joy of Titus, because his spirit has been rested up and continues refreshed by all of you folks (from you all),

14.  because if I have made any boast to him, over you folks, I have not been brought down in shame or disgrace, but to the contrary, as we speak all things in truth and reality, thus also our boasting on Titus came to be truth (was birthed into reality).

15.  Also, his innermost feelings and compassions (internal organs; intestines) are progressing more abundantly into you folks, while progressively calling back to mind the submissive hearing and obedience of you all – as with fear and trembling you received him.

16.  I continue rejoicing, that in everything I am constantly with good courage and confidence in you – that I can depend and rely on you.


1.  Now, brothers, we are continuing to make known to you God’s grace which has been being given among the called-out folks of Macedonia ,

2.  how that within the midst of much testing and proving, which came through pressure, tribulation and affliction, the superabundance of their joy – also contrasted with the depth of their destitution (poverty) – superabounds into the wealth (riches) of their singleness [of heart and purpose] and simplicity (uncomplexness; or: sincerity and liberality),

3.  because – I continue bearing witness and testifying that – corresponding to [their] power and in accord with [their] ability, and even beyond [their] actual power and ability, [they are] those who act spontaneously and voluntarily from their own initiative,

4.  with much appeal and calling of us to their side to give us assistance and encouragement, repeatedly and constantly begging of us the grace (or: the favor) and the common participation (the fellowship of the partnership) of the attending service which pertains to the dispensing into the set-apart folks (the holy ones; the saints).

5.  And not according as we expected, but rather they gave themselves first to the Lord [= Christ or Yahweh; p46 and others read: God], and even (or: also) to us, through the effect of God’s will and purpose,

6.  [leading] us to assist and encourage Titus, so that, just as he did before in the beginning, thus also he should fully finish and complete even this grace into you folks (or: he should bring this grace to its goal: even into you people).

7.  But further, even as you folks continuously superabound within everything – in faith (or: trust) and word (thought; idea; message) and experiential knowledge and all haste to earnest diligence, and the love from out of the midst of us [that is] within the midst of you [other MSS: the love from you [that is] within us] – that you may be progressively superabounding in this grace, also.

8.  I am not now saying [this] down from some arrangement put upon [you], but still [I am] also continuing in testing and proving the legitimacy of the birth (or: the genuineness) of the love, which belongs to you, through means of the haste and earnest diligence of different folks,

9.  for you folks continue knowing by experience the grace of Jesus Christ (or: the grace whose source is Jesus Christ), our Lord (Master; Owner), that continuously existing being rich (wealthy), because of you He became destitute and led the life of a beggar, to the end that by and in the destitution and poverty of That One, you, yourselves, could (should; may) come to be rich (wealthy).

10.  And so, in this [testing and proving], I am now offering knowledge gained from my experience, for this [topic] is progressing to bring things together for you, to your benefit and expedience – you who from a year ago were first in making a beginning not only to do, but even to desire and purpose [it] –

11.  even so now, bring the doing to its goal (fully accomplish the doing), so that – even as the eagerness to will – thus also [may be] the accomplishing of the goal, from out of [your] possessions and holdings.

12.  For if the eagerness continues lying before [a person], [it is] well-embraced and very acceptable – in proportion to whatever one may normally possess (have and hold), not corresponding to what he does not normally have.

13.  For, you see, [the situation is] not that to (for; in) other folks [there is] a letting up with relief and ease, yet to (for; in) you folks [there is] pressure with tribulation and affliction,

14. but to the contrary, out of the fairness and equity of equality within the present season (or: the current occasion and situation), your superabundance (or: surplus) [can flow] into the lack resulting from the shortcoming of those folks, keeping in mind that the superabundance (or: surplus) of those folks could also at some point birth itself into the lack resulting from your shortcoming, so that an equalizing can occur.

15.  [This is] just as it has been written, “the person [who gathered] the great quantity did not have too much, and the person [who gathered] the small amount did not have too little.” [cf. Ex. 16;18]

16.  Now grace [is] in God (or: by God; or: thanks [be] to God) – in (by) the One constantly imparting within the heart of Titus this very same haste and earnest diligence over you folks,

17.  because [Titus] indeed embraced and responded to the assistance and encouragement (the influence of the Paraclete), and being inherently quicker to earnest diligence, spontaneously and of his own accord went forth to you folks.

18.  So we sent together with him the brother whose full approval (praise and added applause) in connection with the good news (the message of ease and wellness) [has spread] through all the called-out folks (or: called-out gatherings)

19.  – yet not only [this], but further, [he is] also one having had hands extended, spread wide and pulled tight by the called-out folks, [being] our traveling companion within this grace [other MSS: together with this grace] which is being progressively dispensed and constantly given in attending service by us [moving with a view] toward the Lord’s glory (good reputation; manifestation which calls forth praise to Christ and Yahweh), and [to] a rushing forward with strong emotion and eagerness which pertains to us [or: toward our Owner’s glory and propensity to rushing with strong feelings] –

20.  [we] being those progressively ordering and arranging this for ourselves: [that] no one can find fault with us (or: may find flaws or defects in us) in connection with this ripe maturity which is being progressively dispensed in attending service by us.

21.  For we “habitually give forethought for providing beautiful things, ideal [situations] and fine [insights] – not only in [the] Lord’s [Yahweh’s] sight, but also in the sight of people (men; humans).”

22.  Now we send (or: sent) our brother, together with them, whom we often tested and proved as continually being quick to be earnest and diligent in many things, yet now much more quickly and with more earnest diligence, but with great confidence, which [he imparts] into you folks.

23.  So whether concerning Titus – my partner and co-worker [dispensing] into you people – or whether our brothers, [they are] those sent forth pertaining to the called-out folks: Christ’s glory (or: [these are] emissaries and apostles who belong to the called-out assemblies – a good reputation for the Anointed One and a manifestation which brings Him praise).

24.  Therefore, show within [other MSS: {be} continuously being ones showing within] the display and demonstration of your love – and of our boasting over you – into the face (= presence) of the called-out folks (or: the called-out assemblies).


1.  For indeed, concerning the attending service and dispensing of provisions into the set-apart folks (the holy ones; the saints), it is superfluous for me to be writing to you folks.

2.  For I have seen, and thus know, your eagerness (fore-spiritedness; forward bent in passions and emotions) – concerning which I am constantly boasting over you folks to [the] Macedonians – that “Achaia has prepared itself and stands ready since last year (from a year ago),” and your zeal stimulates the majority [of them].

3.  So I send the brothers, to the end that our boasting over you may not be made void (empty and to no purpose) in this respect (or: on this part), so that you may be ones who have prepared yourselves – just as I have been saying –

4.  lest by any means, if Macedonians should come with me and they should find you folks unprepared, we, ourselves – not that we should proceed to mention you folks! – should be completely brought down in disgrace and be embarrassed in this underlying assumption of boasting.

5.  Therefore I considered it compelling to call the brothers alongside and to urge them to the end that they should come unto you folks in advance and that they could thoroughly adjust, prepare and arrange in advance the blessing ([being] a bountiful gift; or: a eulogy) from you folks, which had been previously promised and was being fore-announced, [and for] this to continually be ready, thus: as a blessing ([being] a bountiful gift; or: a eulogy) and not as one who has advantage in having more (or: not as greed or the desire to have more; poss.: not as the result of a scheme of extortion).

6.  Now this [is the reality]: the person who is habitually sowing sparingly (in a limited way) will also reap (harvest) sparingly; and the person who is habitually sowing on [the basis of] good thoughts and words (or: with or for blessings; or: bountifully) will also reap on good thoughts and words (or: with blessings; or: bountifully) –

7.  each one correspondingly (or: accordingly) as he has before chosen in (or: by) the heart, not from out of anxiety (sorrow; pain; distress) nor compulsion, for “God habitually and continuously loves a cheerful (merry) giver.”

8.  Moreover, God is constantly able with continuous power to furnish all grace to surround and to make every favor superabound into you folks, to the end that, continuously having every ability in yourselves to ward things off and constantly holding all self-sufficiency and complete contentment at all times [and] within everything (or: in every man), you can (or: may) continuously superabound into every good and noble work,

9.  just as it stands written, “He scattered abroad and widely disperses; He gives to the ones who work hard for their bread, and are poor; His fairness and equity (His right dealings in rightwised relationship which corresponds to the Way pointed out) continuously remains and constantly dwells, into the Age.”

10.  Now the One habitually adding further supply and fully furnishing “seed to (for) the one habitually sowing (the constant sower) and bread unto eating (= for food),” will be supplying and furnishing – He will even multiply and give increase to fullness – your seed, and He will cause the offspring and produce (or: product) of your rightwised behavior (your fairness and equity in right relationships in the Way pointed out) to grow and increase (be enlarged; or: grow up and be amplified),

11.  being progressively enriched unto abundance within every man (or: in everything) [leading] into complete singleness [of purpose] and simplicity [of being] for all generosity (liberality), which constantly produces (works down; accomplishes) thanksgiving to God through our midst [or, with B: which repeatedly works in accord with God’s ease of grace, instilling gratitude through the midst of us],

12.  because the attentive serving and dispensing of this public duty and service is not only repeatedly replenishing (aiming toward filling back up again) the needs (results of defaults; the effects of shortcomings, lacks or deficiencies) pertaining to the set-apart folks (the holy ones; the saints), but further is also progressively superabounding (bringing excessive amounts) through many expressions of gratitude to God (or: by means of many examples of the goodness of grace in God)

13.  through the evidence which is shown by this attending service and dispensing: folks constantly glorifying God and praising His reputation because of the submissive obedience and loyalty of your profession and avowal, [placing] assent into Christ’s good news, and by [the] simplicity and generosity of the partnership of common sharing – into them, and into all people,

14.  even by their request over (on behalf of) you folks, constantly longing and yearning for you, because of God’s transcendent and surpassing grace [resting] upon you people –

15.  grace in and by God, [superimposed] upon His free-gift (as a present) which is a wonder beyond description.


1.  Now I myself, Paul, am making a personal appeal in continuing to call you to my side to encourage and entreat you folks through Christ’s gentle friendliness (mildness; meekness) and lenient reasonableness (or: considerateness with full probability for being suitable for a situation) – I, who indeed [am] humble and lowly when face to face (in person) among you, yet, being absent, am constantly showing courage and confidence unto you –

2.  and am requesting, [that] when being present, to not have a situation where I need to be bold and courageous with the confidence in which I am reasonably considering (counting on) to be daring upon certain folks: those constantly considering and counting us as ones [who] are habitually walking around (= living our lives; ordering our behavior) in correspondence and accord to flesh [= governed by human principles of behavior].

3.  For though habitually walking about (= living our lives and ordering our behavior) within [the] flesh, we are not waging warfare (performing military service) in correspondence and accord to flesh [= human principles],

4.  for, you see, the tools and weapons of our military service and warfare [are] not fleshly [= do not pertain to our human condition], but rather, [are] powerful ones (capable ones) in God (or: by God), [focused] toward [the] pulling down (demolition) of fortifications (strongholds; bulwarks; strongly entrenched positions),

5.  progressively tearing down and demolishing conceptions (concepts; the effects of thoughts, imaginations, reasonings and reflections) and every height and lofty [attitude or obstacle] that is habitually lifting itself up against (or: elevating itself up on so as to put down) the intimate and experiential knowledge of God, and taking captive every thought – one after another – and leading them prisoner into the hearing obedience of the Christ,

6.  even continuously holding [them] in a ready state and prepared condition to support fairness and equity, while maintaining rightwised relationships from out of the Way pointed out, for every mishearing (or: hearing-aside; disobedience)  – whenever your hearing obedience may be made full!

7.  You folks constantly look at things according to [their] face (external appearance; face value; surface meaning).  If anyone has trusted so that he now continues persuaded with confidence for himself to exist belonging to Christ (or: in himself to be a possession of Christ, Christ being his source), let him continue considering and reckoning this again upon himself: that according as he belongs to Christ, in this same way [do] we, also.

8.  For besides, if I should boast somewhat more excessively concerning our right and authority – which the Lord [= Christ or Yahweh] gives us, [leading] unto your upbuilding (your construction into being a house), not unto tearing down or demolition – I shall not be put to shame or be disgraced,

9.  so that I should not seem as ever to be terrifying you folks (constantly making you afraid) through the [or: my] letters.

10.  “Because,” one is constantly saying, “the letters [are] indeed weighty and strong, but the presence of [his] body [is] weak, and the message has been collected from out of nothing (or: and [his] expression has been scorned).”

11.  Let such a person take this into account, that the kind of person we are in word through letters, being absent, such also [are we], being present, in action.

12.  Of course we are not daring to classify ourselves among nor compare or explain ourselves with some of those setting themselves together for commendation.  But in fact they, themselves, are constantly measuring themselves among themselves, and are repeatedly comparing themselves with themselves – they continue not comprehending or understanding!

13.  Now we, ourselves, will not boast into what is not measured (or: about the things that cannot be measured), but rather, corresponding to the measure of the measuring rod (rule; standard; canon) which God divided and gives as a part to (in; for) us – of a measure to reach even as far as upon you folks.

14.  Certainly we are not progressively overspreading (or: overstretching) ourselves – not as ones repeatedly reaching-on into you folks – for we advanced beforehand as far as even you folks in the declaring of Christ’s good news (or: the message of ease and wellness pertaining to and having its source in the Christ).

15.  No, we are not men habitually boasting into what is not measured (or: about the things that cannot be measured) – in labors (toils) belonging to other folks – but are continuously holding an expectation (having a hope) of a progressively growing increase of your faith and trust, to be made great and enlarged within you – corresponding to our measuring rod (rule; standard; canon) – [leading] into abundance (being surrounded with excess),

16.  [increasing] into the [regions] beyond those of your area, to yourselves cause the good news to be proclaimed – not in a measuring rod (standard) belonging to another – [and] to boast into things [that have been] prepared and made ready,

17.  so the one [among you] that is habitually boasting is to be habitually boasting in the Lord [= Christ or Yahweh].

18.  So you see, the person constantly placing himself with others so as to be commended is not that one who is qualified or approved, but rather, he whom the Lord [= Christ or Yahweh] consistently includes and commends.


1.  I wish that you folks were continuing to put up with a little something of my thoughtlessness (or: unreasonableness; lack of consideration; foolishness; imprudence).  But in fact, you are also always patiently tolerant of me (or: as an imper.: Still further, be also patiently tolerant of me),

2.  for I continue with hot zeal (jealousy) concerning you in (or: with; by) God’s fervent zeal (jealousy), because I, myself, joined you folks in marriage to one husband, to make a pure virgin stand alongside in the Christ.

3.  Yet I continue fearing lest somehow, as the serpent thoroughly deceived (or: seduces; fully deludes) Eve within its capability for every work (its cunning ability in all crafts and actions; its readiness to do anything), the results of directing your minds should be decayed (ruined; spoiled; corrupted) away from the singleness [of purpose] and simplicity [of being] – even the purity – which [focuses us] into the Christ.

4.  For if, indeed, the person periodically coming is habitually preaching (heralding; proclaiming) another Jesus – whom we do not preach (or: did not herald and proclaim) – or, [if] you folks are continuously receiving a different Spirit (or: are repeatedly haying hold of a spirit or attitude that is different in kind and nature) which you did not receive, or a different good-news (a message of ease and wellness which is different in kind and character) which you did not welcome and accept, are you repeatedly holding back from [him] in an ideal way? (or: you folks are beautifully putting up with and tolerant of [it]! [other MSS: were you finely holding back from {it}?]).

5.  Now you see, I am habitually considering and counting myself to have been in nothing inferior to or deficient from those “very-overly [pretentious and condescending] emissaries (ones sent forth with a mission; apostles).”

[note: Paul is probably referring to the Judaizers – those sent out from the Jews]

6. Yet even if [I am] non-professional (ordinary and unskilled) in word and expression – though certainly not in intimate and experiential knowledge – still, we are men manifesting light into you folks: in every situation [and] in all things.

7.  Or, do I make a mistake (or: did I commit a sin) [by] repeatedly humbling myself so that you folks can (may) be lifted up because I announce as good news a free gift – God’s good news – to you (or: because without cost I declare a message of ease and wellness to you: God’s good news)?

8.  I encroached upon and took the goods of (or: rob; despoil) other called-out folks (or: groups), taking (or: receiving; getting) rations (provisions; subsistence pay) with a view toward the attending service and dispensing pertaining to you people.

9.  Further, being present and facing you, and being put in need (being made to lack and fall short of means), I was not a “dead weight” on (= an idle encumbrance, hence, a financial burden to) even one person, for the brothers coming from Macedonia replenished the lacks resulting from my being in need, and in everything I kept and shall keep myself “weight-free” (= free from being a burden) for you folks.

10.  Christ’s reality (or: Truth pertaining to, originating in and which is Christ) continuously exists within me, so that this boast (or: boasting) will not be fenced in or hedged about (thus: stopped or blocked) unto (or: for) me within the slopes (= regions) of Achaia.

11.  Why (Through what reason or situation)?  Because I am not continuously loving you folks?  God has seen and thus knows!

12.  So what I am habitually doing I will still do, to the end that I can cut out the starting point, base of operations, and occasion of those repeatedly wanting and intending a starting point (base of operations, or, an occasion), so that they can be found within that which they are constantly boasting – even just as we!

13.  For such men [are] false emissaries (pseudo-apostles) – fraudulent and deceitful workers – constantly changing their outward fashion (transforming themselves) into emissaries (apostles) of Christ.

14.  And no wonder ([it is] no marvel or cause for astonishment), for the adversary (opponent; satan) itself is repeatedly changing its outward fashion (transforming itself; or, as a pass.: being transformed and changed in its outward expression) into a messenger (or: agent) of light.

15.  Therefore, [it is] no great thing if its attending servants and dispensers also repeatedly change their outward fashion (or: are habitually transformed) as attending servants of fairness and equity (dispensers of the way pointed out) – whose end (finished product; goal; consummation) will be in accord with and corresponding to their works.

16.  I say again, no one should presume to imagine or suppose me to be a senseless fellow (a fool; one devoid of intellect; an imprudent man).  Still – if not in fact – even if as senseless (foolish; idiotic; imprudent), accept and receive me, so that I, myself, also can boast of something!

17.  What I am presently speaking I am speaking not in accord with [the] Lord (Master; Owner; [= Christ or Yahweh]), but to the contrary, as within senselessness (foolishness; imprudence) – within this assumed position as a basis for boasting:

18.  since many folks are habitually boasting – according to the flesh – I, myself, should also boast,

19.  for with pleasure you, continuously being intelligent, sensible and prudent folks, habitually put up with the senseless (foolish; idiotic; imprudent) ones!

20.  In fact, you constantly put up with anyone if he is progressively bringing you down to slavery (or: is completely enslaving you as his habit) – if someone is repeatedly devouring; if someone is constantly taking [you] in hand; if someone is progressively elevating himself or lifting himself up upon [you]; if someone is continuously bringing the lash into your face (flaying you with a whip so as to remove the skin and eat into the face)! [= you folks constantly tolerate tyranny, being drained of resources, being manipulated and restrained, pride and arrogance, and abusive insults]

21.  I am saying [this] down from dishonor (or: in accord with being devalued), seeing that we, ourselves, have been weak.  Yet in whatever anyone is habitually daring – I say this in senselessness – I, too, am habitually daring!

22.  Are they Hebrews?  So [am] I!  Are they Israelites?  So [am] I!  Are they a seed of Abraham?  So [am] I!

23.  Are they Christ’s attending servants? – I am speaking as one being beside himself (or: insane) – I [am] over and above [them] (or: I, more so)!  In toilsome labors and weariness more exceedingly; in prisons and jails more often; in blows (stripes or beatings) surpassingly; in deaths many times (= in near-death situations often).

24.  Five times by Jews I received forty [stripes], less one.

25.  Three times I was beaten with rods; once I was stoned; three times I was shipwrecked – I have done night and day within the midst of the depth [of the sea], even hitting bottom;

26.  on journeys often (many times); in dangers (perils) of rivers (or: floods); in dangers of robbers (perils of plunderers); in dangers from out of [my] race (kindred); in dangers from out of the multitudes of ethnic groups ([the] nations); in dangers within city; in dangers within a desolate place (wilderness); in dangers at sea; in dangers among false-brothers;

27.  in exhaustive labor and wearisome toil; in lack of sleep (or: sleeplessness; or: vigils) often; in hunger (or: scarcity of food; or: famine) and in thirst – in situations of deprivation or need of food (or: in fastings), many times; in cold and in lack of sufficient clothing (or: nakedness);

28.  apart from these external matters (or: apart from those things [just mentioned] – besides the outside – ) [there is] the thing rushing in on me and giving cares (the pressure) from day to day: the anxiety and concern pertaining to all the called-out folks (or: assemblies):

29.  Who is continuing weak and I am not proceeding to be weak?  Who is habitually snared and caused to stumble or be entrapped, and I, myself, am not being repeatedly made fiery hot (or: caused to be incensed)?

30.  If (or: Since) it is necessary to boast, I will boast concerning the things pertaining to my weakness.

31.  The God and Father of the Lord Jesus (or, in apposition: which is [the] Lord Jesus) – the One continuously being a blessed One (or: the One constantly existing being [in character and quality as] a Word of ease and a Message of wellness) into the ages – has seen and thus knows that I am not lying.

32.  In Damascus the ethnarch (tribal governor; ruler of that culture) under Aretas, the king, had been watching with guards to garrison the city of Damascus , intending to seize and arrest me,

33.  and through a window (or: small opening) I was lowered through the wall in a braided hamper (of ropes or wicker), and escaped (fled out of) his hands.


1.  It is necessary for one to boast, though indeed not beneficial or expedient [other MSS: If (or: Since) it is necessary… {it does} not bring {things} together]. Yet, I will come into visions (sights; apparitions; appearances) and unveilings (revelations; disclosures) of [the] Lord [= Christ or Yahweh] (or: whose source and origin are [the] Lord; which are [the] Lord).

2.  I have seen and know a person (or: a man; a human) in Christ (or: within the midst of Christ; in union with Christ) fourteen years ago – whether in body (or: in a body; or: within the midst of [the] body), I have not seen and do not know (I am not aware); whether outside of the body, I have not seen and do not know (I am not aware); God has seen and knows (is aware) – being snatched away (dragged off; seized and taken) as such as far as [the; or: a] third heaven.

3.  Further, I have seen and know such a person (man; human) – whether in body or apart from the body, I know not; God knows –

4.  that was snatched away (seized and taken) into the Paradise and heard inexpressible utterances (unutterable sayings; unspeakable words) which it continues being not right (or: for which there is no authority; which it is not being possible; which it is not allowed) for a person (man; human) to speak.

5.  I will boast over such a person, yet over myself I will not boast – except in my weaknesses,

6.  for if I should ever want or intend to boast, I shall not be senseless (unintelligent; unreasonable; imprudent), for I will declare reality (truth).  Yet I continue being reticent (continue refraining).  No one should account into me [anything] above (or: over) what he continues seeing and observing [in; or: of] me, or hearing from me –

7.  even the excess of the unveilings (revelations). Through which [situation], so that I could (or: should) not be progressively exalted (continue being overly lifted up [in myself or by others]) something with a point (a stake; a thorn; a splinter) for (or: in; by; to) the flesh is given (or: was given) for me (or: in me; to me): an agent of the adversary, to the end that he (or: it) could (or: should) repeatedly beat me in the face (or: slap me on the ear) with his (or: its) fist.

8.  I called the Lord [Christ or Yahweh] alongside and entreated [Him] three times over (or: about) this, so that he (it) would (should) stand away (withdraw) from me,

9.  and He said to me, “My grace is continuously sufficient in you (constantly adequate for you), for ability (or: the [other MSS read: My] power) is habitually brought to its goal (or: finished; perfected; matured) within the midst of (or: in union with) weakness.”  Most gladly, therefore, I will rather be boasting within the midst of and in union with weakness, to the end that the ability of the Christ (or: Christ’s power) can pitch its tent (or: should tabernacle) upon me [note: = set up residence upon me during this transient life and journey; perhaps = fulfill the type of the Feast of Tabernacles with me; or: = be my house from heaven; cf: ch. 5:1]!

10.  Wherefore I habitually delight and take pleasure within weaknesses; in the midst of outrageous insults and ignominious situations of mistreatment; in union with pressured necessities; in the midst of pursuits for persecution and cramped situations over (on behalf of) Christ, for whenever I continue being (or: may periodically be) weak, then I am powerful (or: I then exist being capable)!

11.  I have become unreasonable (senseless; imprudent; foolish) – you, yourselves, compel me (press and force me; = drive me to it!) – for I, myself, ought to have been being constantly recommended (placed together with and commended) by you folks, because not even in one thing did I come behind (or: am I deficient from or inferior to) the “very-overly” [pretentious and condescending] emissaries (apostles), even if I am nothing (or: since I also exist being nothing!).

12.  Indeed, the signs of the emissary (the apostle) were produced (accomplished) [by me] among you folks in every [situation] of remaining under (or: in all patient endurance) – as well as by signs and wonders (portents; marvels) and powers (or: in abilities and capabilities).

13.  So what is there in which you folks were treated as inferior, or made worse off, above (= more than) the rest of the called-out folks (or: assemblies), except that for myself, I myself was not a “dead weight” for (= and idle encumbrance, hence, a financial burden to) you folks?  Give grace to me for this unfairness (wrong; injustice)!

14.  Look (Consider)!  This third time I continue holding [myself] ready and prepared to come to (or: go toward) you folks – and I will not be “dead weight” (an encumbrance or burden), for I am not habitually seeking your “things” (your possessions), but to the contrary, you.  For the children ought not to be habitually storing up and accumulating [material resources] for the parents, but rather, the parents [should do this] for the children.

15.  So I, myself, most gladly shall spend (pay the expenses) – even be completely spent (exhausted; bankrupted) – over (on behalf of) your souls.  Even if I am constantly loving you excessively, I am habitually being loved less.  (or: And since I am continuously loving you more abundantly {or: too much}, am I being loved less?)

16.  Yet, let it continue to be.  I, myself, do not (or: did not) overburden or weigh you down.  Nonetheless, being inherently ready to do anything and capable for every work, I caught you, taking you by bait (as used for fish)!

17.  [Did; Does] not anyone whom I have sent off as an emissary (apostle) to you folks [do this]?  Do (or: Did) I take advantage of you through him?

18.  I called Titus alongside, urged [him] and sent [him] off, together with the brother, as an emissary (apostle).  Surely Titus did not take advantage of you!  Do we not walk about in the same Spirit (or: = Do we not live and order our lives with the same attitude)?  Not in the same footprints?

19.  All this time [other MSS: Again] do you folks continue thinking (supposing; presuming) that we are repeatedly make a verbal defense to you?  Down [here] in God’s stead and place, we are constantly speaking within Christ.  And the whole (all [these] things), beloved ones, [is (are)] over (on behalf of) your edification (your upbuilding; the construction of your house).

20.  So you see, I continue being afraid, lest somehow – on coming – I may not find you folks such as I habitually intend (purpose; desire) – and I, myself, may be found by you [to be one] such as you folks continue not desiring – lest somehow [I may find] strife (contention; quarreling), jealousy, outbursts of emotions or swellings of anger, selfish ambition and factious rivalry, back-bitings (down-blabings; slanderous conversations), whisperings (occasions of malicious gossiping), situations of puffing up (inflations of pride), disorders (situations of unrest; turbulences; losses of tranquility; instabilities).

21.  My God will [other MSS: may] not again be humbling me toward you folks, at my coming, and yet I may mourn and grieve over many of those having before failed (missed the target; sinned) – continuing thus – and not even once repenting or changing their views upon the uncleanness and fornication (sexual immorality; prostitution) and loose conduct (blatant licentiousness) which they practice.


1.  I am habitually coming to you folks – this third time, now! “Upon [the] mouth of two witnesses – and of three – every saying will be made to stand.”

2.  I have said before, and I continue saying beforehand – as continuing present, the second time, and yet now continuing absent – to those having before failed (sinned), and still continuing thus – and to all the rest – that if I should ever come again into the [area], I will not spare or refrain,

3.  since you continue seeking a proof of the Christ continuously speaking within and in union with me – Who [having come] into you folks is not being weak, but rather continues powerful (or: capable) within and in union with you folks.

4.  For, you see, He was crucified (put to death on a torture stake) from out of weakness, but yet He is continuously living from out of the midst of God’s power and ability.  For we, ourselves, also continuing being weak within Him, but still we shall be living together with Him from out of the midst of God’s power and ability [which is also directed] into you folks.

5.  Keep on examining and making trial of yourselves, since you exist being in union with the faith (or: whether you continue being [and thus, living] within the midst of trust); repeatedly test and assay yourselves so as to approve of yourselves and come to meet the desired specifications.  Or are you not fully aware of nor recognizing yourselves: that Jesus Christ [other MSS: Christ Jesus] constantly exists being within the midst of and in union with you?

6.  Yet I continue expecting that you folks will come to know by intimate experience that we, ourselves, are not unable to stand the test, nor are we disapproved or disqualified!

7.  Now we habitually hold good thoughts and have wishes of ease and wellness toward God, asking [that] you folks do nothing worthless or of bad quality – not so that we, ourselves, can appear (should be made to be seen) as approved or qualified, but rather so that you, yourselves, can (should) be habitually doing that which is beautiful (constantly constructing the ideal; repeatedly making what is fine), even though we, ourselves, may be as ones disapproved and disqualified (= should look as if we had failed the test).

8.  For you see, we continue powerless (unable; incapable; having no power) [in regard to] anything against (or: putting down) reality (the Truth), but still, [we have power and ability] for the sake of (over) reality (the Truth).

9.  So we are constantly rejoicing whenever we, ourselves, may continue being weak, yet you, yourselves, may continue being able and powerful.  We are also constantly holding this good thought, asking with wishes of ease and wellness: your complete adjustment (your thoroughly being knitted together, made completely equipped in full readiness, and adapted in perfect unity).

10.  Therefore, being absent, I am now writing these things, to the end that, [when] being present, I may not severely (harshly; in a cutting-off way) employ the rights and authority which the Lord [= Christ or Yahweh] gave, and gives, to (in) me, [which lead] into building the house up, and not into tearing [it] down.

11.  As to the rest, brothers, be habitually rejoicing; be continuously adjusted so as to be completely equipped and fully made ready while being thoroughly knitted together into perfect unity; be repeatedly called alongside to give (or be given) aid, comfort and encouragement; constantly mind the same thing and agree, being of the same opinion (have the same frame of mind and be mutually disposed); continuously dwell in peace (keep peace; be at peace; live in shalom) – and the God of the Love and Peace will be with you folks.

12.  Greet and embrace one another within a set-apart (holy) kiss (expression of affection).

13.  All the set-apart folks (the holy ones) constantly embrace you folks and send you their best.

14.  The grace of the Lord – Jesus Christ – and (or: even) the love of God, and the common partnership, sharing, communion and participation of the set-apart Breath-effect and attitude (of the Holy Spirit) [continue being] with all of you folks.  It is so (Amen)!



BOOK of CORINTHIANS II [Jonathan Mitchell] ~BIBLE TRANSLATION        1


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